Have Tua Tagovailoa and Miami Dolphins Been Figured Out?

Miami Dolphins QB Tua Tagovailoa
Miami Dolphins QB Tua Tagovailoa
Photo: USA Today Sports Images

NFL Week 14 - For weeks, NFL Twitter has been dominated by a certain debate pitting two third-year quarterbacks against each other, spearheaded by FS1's Emmanuel Acho (and recently stoked by our own Mike Tanier). Tua Tagovailoa of the Miami Dolphins and Justin Herbert of the Los Angeles Chargers have been inextricably linked in an argument of who's the better player. When the Dolphins-Chargers game was flexed into Sunday Night Football, football nerds, takesmiths, and terminally online sickos all rejoiced. This matchup was framed as a once-and-for-all way to settle this mind-numbing back-and-forth.

The only thing answered by the Chargers' 23-17 win over Miami is this: in a landscape of hot takes, nuance is boring, but it usually wins out in the long run.

Part of the reason this whole debate started was the Chargers' big underachievement this year, specifically on offense. Los Angeles has fallen from 12th to 26th in total DVOA year-over-year, with the offense posting its worst performance by DVOA in a decade. Much of that comes from the Joe Lombardi offensive scheme, on full display Sunday night. So much of Lombardi's passing offense is dependent on quick, out-breaking horizontal routes. While that's fine on the surface, it's done to a fault in Los Angeles. A prime example: the Chargers' first offensive drive. L.A. gets the ball on first-and-goal from the 5-yard-line. After a first-down run, the Chargers run three straight pass plays. None of them target the end zone. Two were thrown behind the line of scrimmage. Herbert ranks 25th among quarterbacks in ALEX, not for a lack of talent, but rather by design.

That being said, while playing within that system, Herbert played great on Sunday night. On many occasions, the Chargers quarterback was put under pressure by a Miami pass rush taking advantage of a banged-up offensive line. According to Pro Football Reference, the Dolphins used 26 blitzes on Sunday, the most Herbert has seen this year. In a season where he has consistently drawn pressure rates north of 20%, Miami's 15 forced pressures finished tied for the third most Herbert has faced in a game this season. Yet time and time again, Herbert escaped the pocket, rolled out to one side, and expertly placed balls along the sideline. It's a lot of effort for chunk gains, but Herbert looked great doing it

It certainly helped to have players like Mike Williams healthy. Williams, who missed four of the last five games with injury, has been one of many Chargers receivers to miss time this year. Just DeAndre Carter has appeared in all 13 games this season, joining Austin Ekeler, tight end Tre' McKitty, and fullback Zander Horvath as the only skill position players to share that achievement. Williams and Keenan Allen are the dynamic duo of this Chargers receiving corps, two $20-million-per-year receivers that complement each other in skill set. On paper, Allen is the precision route-runner perfect for these shorter crossing routes, while Williams is the big-bodied vertical passing threat. Injuries have all but ruined that on-paper plan. Allen has been hampered by a hamstring injury, his recent routes showing every bit of his 30 years. Williams has battled ankle injuries in recent weeks, but his mere presence is a boost for Herbert.

Take the Chargers' first touchdown of the game. Herbert runs play-action and bootlegs out to the open side of the field. Miami is running a two-high defense with zone underneath. Williams cuts through the zone, but Kader Kohou is covering the area just in front of where Williams' route is taking him. Herbert is forced to loft the ball into the back of the end zone. Of the Chargers receivers, no one matches Williams at 6-foot-4. While tight ends Gerald Everett and McKitty may come close in height, neither has the dexterity to reel this ball in and secure the touchdown with the toe-tap.

It also helps to have a player like Ekeler in the Lombardi offense. Few players are as singularly important to their offense this season as Ekeler is to the Chargers. While he doesn't come close to the bellcow status of a Derrick Henry, Josh Jacobs, or Saquon Barkley, Ekeler is the epitome of dual-threat. Ekeler's 112 targets and 93 receptions are both in the top 10 among all players, and most among running backs. His 153 rushing attempts barely cracks the top 20, but he accounts for 61.9% of all Chargers rushes by running backs or fullbacks (Joshua Kelley and Sony Michel are tied for second with 36 apiece). According to Stathead, Ekeler is seven receptions shy of becoming the fourth player in NFL history to finish with 100 rushing attempts and 100 receptions in a single season. He is also on pace to be the first such player without 1,000 yards in either category. Despite the lack of efficiency (he is on pace for career lows in rushing and receiving DVOA), Ekeler is the ever-reliable option in this offense. With 23 touches on Sunday night—15 carries and eight receptions—only Herbert touched the ball more for the Chargers.

The problem is that even with the injuries, the Chargers passing offense shouldn't have to be so reliant on Ekeler. It shouldn't have to rely on short passing at all, for that matter. The Tua-versus-Herbert debate was so contentious to begin with because prior to this season, Herbert had put up two years of great stats and good tape. However, Herbert's average air yards per attempt has dropped by more than a full yard year-over-year. Pro Football Reference notes that Herbert is second in passing yards but 27th in yards per attempt, barely outpaced by the likes of Matt Ryan and Zach Wilson. His DVOA and DYAR are both on pace for career lows, as is his QBR. There are valid criticisms in both Herbert's game and in the fact that he was anointed as "the next big thing" by many despite having a losing career record and never making the postseason. But people go to bat so fervently for Herbert because, even within this tepid offense, Herbert can execute as well as any quarterback in the league. And when Lombardi does loosen the leash and open up the playbook, Herbert does this:

While many anticipated a potential Herbert redemption tour, Chargers head coach Brandon Staley had one of his own against the Dolphins. The defense-minded head coach who was once beloved for his fourth-down decision-making in 2021 had fallen out of favor this season. After an offseason of marquee acquisitions in Khalil Mack, J.C. Jackson, and Sebastian Joseph-Day, Los Angeles' defensive improvement has not lived up to its preseason billing. Yet, just days after reports broke that retired head coach Sean Payton was eyeing his job, Staley opened one of his most impressive defensive game plans of the season.

The Los Angeles Chargers defense put on a master class against the league's best passing offense by DVOA through 13 weeks. Tagovailoa finished the game with a statline that sticks out like a sore thumb from the rest of his games this season: 10-for-28 for 145 yards and a touchdown. In terms of games Tua has started and finished, the Chargers held the Dolphins quarterback to his fewest passing attempts, passing yards, and yards per attempt of the season while also forcing the lowest completion percentage of his career in a full start.

Staley's central game plan was to make the league-leader in passing DVOA earn his yards. For big stretches of the game, the Chargers rode Miami receivers in press-man coverages. Michael Davis had a night against Tyreek Hill, jamming him at the line of scrimmage and staying in coverage nearly every step of the way. According to Sports Info Solutions, Davis allowed just three receptions on a season-high nine targets. And 60 of the 74 yards he allowed came on the Dolphins' lone passing touchdown of the night—a deep ball to Hill where Davis slipped in coverage. Allowing plays like that are the perils of press-man coverage, but beyond that one play, Davis did well holding Hill up in coverage with relentless physicality at the line of scrimmage.

Even when they tried to get Hill open through jet motion, the Chargers ensured they took away the thing Tua and Mike McDaniel want most on a play like this: the middle of the field. Tagovailoa has a league-leading 998 DYAR when throwing to the middle of the field. It's what the new-look Miami offense is built off. For the second week in a row, a defense has taken it away, and it has resulted in a loss. In Week 13, the San Francisco ran a ton of Cover-2 and Cover-6 concepts, with Fred Warner lurking in coverage over the middle. This caused processing issues that slowed down the Dolphins offense. Tagovailoa finished the day with a 54.5% completion rate, two interceptions, three sacks, and a lost fumble in what had been Miami's worst game by passing DVOA before Sunday night.

This week, while the Chargers did mix in some zone coverages, most of their defensive looks came through man. In those man routes, the Chargers leveraged Dolphins receivers away from the middle of the field. Los Angeles was willing to ride Dolphins defenders out away from the middle of the field and toward the sideline because they were confident Tagovailoa could not make the throw to that area. Adding some extra safety help to the center of the field means that Tagovailoa needs to look elsewhere on this route; the middle of the field is a sea of powder blue jerseys. But the ball is thrown anyway, because the middle has been open for the Dolphins all year, and before the snap that coverage showed the middle of the field was open.

Staley also threw in post-snap shifts in coverage to further force Tagovailoa adjust his reads after the snap. Some looks ended up radically shifting the defense for the Chargers. This play started with five L.A. jerseys rolled up to the line of scrimmage before linebacker Drue Tranquill bailed at the snap of the ball, becoming the lone deep man in coverage.

It helps that Kyle Van Noy put Terron Armstead in a blender for his first sack of the year, but the curveballs in post-snap coverage were a problem for the Dolphins all night.

By the DVOA

MIA -27.6% 11.8% 7.8% -31.6%
LAC -6.8% -43.0% 8.3% 44.4%
MIA -25.6% 4.6% 7.8% -22.4%
LAC -5.7% -22.3% 8.3% 24.8%

This is the worst game by total offensive DVOA that Miami has had all season, only slightly out-doing their Week 13 performance against the San Francisco 49ers (-22.2%). One of the places Miami was consistently stymied all night was on third down. The Dolphins are currently second in the league by DVOA on third-/fourth-down passing, yet they finished 3-for-11 converting third downs on Sunday night.

This is the best Chargers performance by defensive DVOA since Week 1, ranking third best among their games under Staley.

Has the Clock Struck Midnight on Phin-derella?

The Miami Dolphins did not magically turn into a pumpkin after two straight bad passing games. While the MVP hype for Tagovailoa may have quieted down a bit, the Dolphins are still a top-10 team by total DVOA, making the playoffs in over 75% of our simulations. That being said, every new-look offense gets to this point: they get counter-punched. The question is, is there a counter to the counter-punch?

There were open runs for the Dolphins on Sunday night, with Miami averaging nearly 5 yards per carry on 19 attempts. Tua ended up tying his season-high for scrambles, a feature that used to be a much bigger part of his game prior to this year. This should be McDaniel's bread and butter, seeing as he was the 49ers' run game coordinator for three years before taking over as offensive coordinator in 2021. Miami has yet to rely heavily on a rushing attack, but it was open most of the time against the Chargers.

The real problem, though, comes from the passing attack. Rushing can't be the answer. It can certainly help at times, but it can't be a catch-all panacea on a team built to attack through the air. Miami's adjustment against San Francisco came in the form of quick passes to the flats. That can serve situationally, getting the ball out into space, when a defense approaches Miami the way the 49ers did: lots of two-high, zone-heavy looks with emphasis covering the middle of the field.

Some fault lies with Tagovailoa. According to RBSDM, Tagovailoa led all quarterbacks (min. 100 plays) in completion percentage over expected through Week 12 at 5.6%. Over the last two weeks, Tagovailoa had a CPOE of -13.7%. That's just shy of a 20-point swing in expected accuracy. The Chargers were outright willing to give him the outside of the field in the confidence he wasn't going to make the throws necessary to beat them. Whether it is a question of arm strength, accuracy, or a combination of the two for that sideline hole shot, they bet against Tagovailoa being able to adjust his game, and they won big.

This isn't any sort of Tua "fraud watch," mind you. The quarterback has made genuine strides over the course of the season, looking leaps and bounds better than he did in his first two years in the league. It's just that the five-game stretch of playing a banged-up Steelers defense followed by the Lions, Bears, Browns, and Texans is over. The level of competition is ramping up, and it only gets harder from here. Miami has to play through the rest of their division one more time before the regular season ends, and each of those teams ranks in the top six of defensive DVOA.

Two of those games are on the road in Buffalo and New England in the dead of winter. Miami reportedly had space heaters on the sideline for their game against the Chargers. It was in the mid-50s in Los Angeles over the weekend. Buffalo is expecting around four inches of snow this Sunday. These are going to be adverse conditions for the Dolphins, an additional adjustment to make on top of having to rework their offense. This is crunch time for a Dolphins offense that has impressed early in the season. Whether or not they can make the necessary offensive adjustments is what separates Miami from true contention. Buffalo, Kansas City, and Cincinnati all have those wrinkles or second gears for defenses. Finding the counter-punch to the counter-punch will determine whether the Dolphins even have an argument to rank with those contenders.


30 comments, Last at 15 Dec 2022, 3:19pm

#1 by Rufus R. Jones // Dec 13, 2022 - 10:45pm

Vagueness and anecdotes.

Points: -18

#2 by Ehrke_Paul // Dec 14, 2022 - 6:00am

Could someone make an analysis on the topic "passing downs vs standard downs" in college vs in the NFL in 2022? I think it would be really interesting to check whether they remain similar or not. If anybody knows of something like that I'd really appreciate a short info on that!

Points: 0

#3 by Mike B. In Va // Dec 14, 2022 - 8:43am

Miami now has to go play Buffalo, the team that...smothered Tua pre-concussion and only made one major mistake after that, despite half the team collapsing from heat stroke. SF and LAC used the same game plan on defense Buffalo did, even though LAC really didn't have the personnel to do it, from what my limited analysis abilities tell me. I believe Buffalo played the most man coverage they have used all season last time against Miami. It should be interesting to see if there's an adjustment from Miami.

Points: 2

#4 by Tutenkharnage // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:11am

The Dolphins will likely adjust to the weather and the defensive game plan by running … for the bus. 

Points: 0

#5 by ImNewAroundThe… // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:23am

Seemed like they didn't want anything underneath (highest adot outside of Jacobys one play). Growing pains of new additions maybe. Also Staley not quite the idiot everyone has made him out to be. 

Points: 1

#6 by whocares4 // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:25am

Where's that guy who was in seemingly every thread shrieking about how Tua was OBVIOUSLY the MVP and how there was no need to see how the rest of the season played out or be cirsumspect, that you were a CLOWN if you had any doubts? Seems pretty quiet these days.

Honest question: has an MVP winner ever had a game as bad as this one in the season where they won the MVP? DYAR/DVOA didn't hate it, but has an MVP ever had a statline like 11/28, 145 yds and 2 INTs in their MVP season? Wondering what the single-game floor an MVP can't go below is...

Points: 0

#9 by Travis // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:43am

Aaron Rodgers opened last season with a comparable 15/28, 133 yards, 2 interception game in a 38-3 loss and went on to win MVP.

Points: 6

#12 by Travis // Dec 14, 2022 - 1:38pm

Some other selected bad games from AP MVP seasons (ignoring missed and injury-plagued games):

Roman Gabriel, 1969 Week 13: 7/13, 41, 2 interceptions (Rams had already clinched the division, so unclear on effort)

Ken Anderson, 1981 Week 1: 5/15, 39, 2 interceptions (got benched for Turk Schonert, who led comeback victory)

Terry Bradshaw, 1978 Week 12: 12/30, 117, 4 interceptions (Steelers won 7-6)

Barry Sanders, 1997 Week 1: 15 carries, 33 yards

Points: 2

#23 by Vincent Verhei // Dec 14, 2022 - 8:59pm

Steve Young, Week 5, 1994: 11-of-23, 99 yards, 0 TD, 2 INT, 1 fumble in a 40-8 loss to Philadelphia. Young -- Steve Young! -- was cursing out George Seifert on the sidelines and everyone thought it was the end of the 49ers dynasty.

After that game, including the playoffs, Young threw 35 touchdowns and three interceptions and won the MVP award, while the 49ers won the Super Bowl, their only loss coming in Week 17 when Young and the starters were pulled at halftime.

Points: 2

#10 by KnotMe // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:50am

I admit that is actually a bit interesting. Worst game by QB in a MVP season.

Lamar Jackson had this in 2019. https://www.pro-football-reference.com/boxscores/201910200sea.htm
143 yds, 45% completion rate. 

Can't think of a good way of searching however. 

Points: 0

#15 by IlluminatusUIUC // Dec 14, 2022 - 2:44pm

I know you're driving at games before the vote, but I'm throwing up 2002 Rich Gannon in the Super Bowl: 24-44 for 272 yards, 2TD, but also 5 picks, 5 sacks, and a fumble.

Points: 0

#19 by Mike B. In Va // Dec 14, 2022 - 4:32pm

Can you add the giant contract for Dexter Jackson from AZ to the total?

Points: 0

#7 by whocares4 // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:25am

double post

Points: 1

#8 by Ryan // Dec 14, 2022 - 11:32am

A guy on twitter did a couple real nice videos looking at Staley's designs on inside coverage that are worth a look.


I wonder if Tua is as willing to be as aggressive outside the numbers as he is inside them if teams play this type of coverage. 

Points: 0

#14 by Mike B. In Va // Dec 14, 2022 - 1:49pm

I suspect his turnover numbers will go up if he is.

Points: 0

#13 by JoelBarlow // Dec 14, 2022 - 1:48pm

I know on the one hand this is a reductive analysis but its notable to me that on a night when the opposing team QB is horrendous, and everyone is raving about the performance of your QB (who throws 51 times) - you score 23 points at home in a dome

the chargers offense is broken if it takes an A+ effort from the QB in a totally favorable environment to hit that number 

Points: 1

#16 by Raiderfan // Dec 14, 2022 - 2:58pm

Well, their OLine is broken, their playcalling is broken—at least I have seen multiple pundits say so—and their top two receivers have been bothered by injuries for much of the year.

Points: 1

#17 by t.d. // Dec 14, 2022 - 3:23pm

yeah, 'regression' from both Herbert this year and from Tua these past couple weeks seems awfully tied to 

'their teams are significantly banged up' (aren't both Waddle and Hill plus the line fighting through injuries?)

Points: 0

#18 by AFCNFCBowl // Dec 14, 2022 - 4:00pm

Herbert was great in this game, but not as great as the raw stats look: he threw 17 failed completions and LAC was just 2 of 5 in the redzone.

The LAC defense was lights out in this game - MIA's two touchdowns were a fluke fumble return touchdown (which is a negative play by DVOA) and a 60-yard pass play where the DB slipped.

Points: 0

#20 by Ryan // Dec 14, 2022 - 5:01pm

I got real "peak Andrew Luck during the Pagano/Grigson era" vibes from Herbert on Sunday. Constantly under duress, but rarely putting the ball in a bad spot or risking a turnover (remember, I said 'peak' Luck). I think a lot of other QBs would have turned some of those failed completions into turnovers. A very impressive performance. 

Points: 1

#24 by Spanosian Magn… // Dec 15, 2022 - 2:59am

Yes, the Andrew Luck similarities are at times really striking. I remember a game, I think it was last year against the Cowboys, where he ended up with relatively pedestrian numbers despite playing, honest to goodness, one of the best QB games I have ever seen. He had an absolutely preposterous number of successful plays called back for mostly irrelevant penalties and general incompetence by his teammates, which of course also left them constantly in and-long situations - yet time and again he would manage to dig them out. And like Luck, he had that, I guess you'd call it leadership, that quality where he was just unquestionably in command, that he knew exactly what to do to get them out of it. And like all too often with Luck as well, it wasn't quite enough, but it was damned impressive.

Herbert is much, er, luckier than Luck in that his GM isn't a complete dunce, so maybe his story will have a happier ending when it's all said and done.

Points: 0

#25 by Aaron Brooks G… // Dec 15, 2022 - 9:24am

This was the best QB game I ever saw:

Detroit was just eating the Bears' line alive. Cutler was running for his life the entire game and was turning shit into shinola all day by throwing off-platform and at weird angles, and it worked far better than it had any right to.

Points: 0

#21 by NYSackExchange // Dec 14, 2022 - 5:34pm

Thoroughly enjoyable and informative article!

Points: 0

#22 by Kaepernicus // Dec 14, 2022 - 7:20pm

This is a great breakdown. I think it is still clear that Herbert is a much better QB than Tua. The offense that LAC runs is one of the worst in the NFL. Herbert never seems to have a single easy pass to make in any game. There are no clearly open players that he is missing repeatedly. It's like watching some early 2000's isolation NBA offense consisting of mid-range jumpers and passes into slow big men in the post. The personnel makes no sense when you sum up all of the parts. They have an old possession receiver (Keenan Allen), a big contested catch specialist (Mike Williams), and an assorted collection of WR4 types trying to play outside. None of the route combos seem to interact with each other to create mismatches. It's really difficult to understand how Lombardi got another job after finding a way to put up a bottom 10 offense with Golden Tate, Megatron, and Stafford in Detroit in his only other stint as an OC. Herbert's numbers are eerily similar to Stafford's in that same terrible offense. It seems obvious that Lombardi has no clue how to or doesn't care to implement a competent running game. The fact that Herbert has been able to put up much better numbers than Stafford with a worse supporting cast seems to clearly indicate that he will become much more efficient when the offensive system approaches an average level of competence.

This all leads to the biggest problem with the Chargers. Brandon Staley is not a good HC. His area of expertise, defense, has been terrible both years he has been there. No defense with Joey Bosa and Derwin James should be below average when they are healthy, which they were last year when they had a terrible rushing defense. Robert Saleh has taken a terrible defense from worst in the league to top 10 in 2 years while dealing with Zach Wilson as the starting QB for 7 games in a tougher division. Staley has put together an awful coaching staff and never fielded a defense as good as any of the defenses under Lynn. Lynn employed Gus Bradley who ran a 4-3 which matched their personnel. At this point Staley seems like the defensive version of Adam Gase. There is no advantage he can gain from in game decision making that will overcome the preexisting deficit from his terrible scheme/staff decisions.

Then you see an incredible game plan like the one put together against the Dolphins and you remember he is still a top shelf defensive strategist. It seems clear that Staley is better suited as a top end coordinator. If the Chargers want to compete with the Chiefs they need to fire him soon. Herbert, Bosa, Ekeler, and Derwin are far too talented to be stuck on a team this mediocre.

Points: 0

#27 by Laserblast // Dec 15, 2022 - 10:12am

I don't understand this statement.


 Brandon Staley is not a good HC. His area of expertise, defense, has been terrible both years he has been there. (...) It seems clear that Staley is better suited as a top end coordinator.

So first of all, you say Staley is a bad HC while not pointing out anything that is HC related.

If anything, I think Staley is a very good HC. I won't say he's top 10 because he still employs Lombardi (which may or may not be his fault, depending if the FO is in charge). He continuosly does good challenges, know when to use Timeouts, has a very good feel for the game, he was very good on 4th down decisions last year and seems to be getting there this last few games.

He also understands who his best players are and to put the ball in their hands in crunch time.


Second of all, you point out his coordinator faults (he's the defensive play caller) and then say he's a top end coordinator.


Which one is it?

Points: -1

#29 by Eddo // Dec 15, 2022 - 10:27am

I don't know enough about Staley to judge him overall, but I also don't think what you've said is that much of a defense.

Using timeouts and making good fourth down decisions are definite positives, but are only a small part of what a head coach does.  And the point about being a high-end coordinator... if he's head coach, perhaps he's not able to devote enough time to defensive playcalling.  Maybe a better move would be to have someone else call plays?

I am skeptical he's a very good coach, unless Herbert is not all that great.  And vice versa.  Otherwise you have a very good head coach and a very good QB (The Ringer still has him #2 on their QB rankings for some reason), but a very mediocre team.  And the supporting cast doesn't seem to be that bad.  Something has to explain why the Chargers aren't very good.

Points: 0

#30 by Kaepernicus // Dec 15, 2022 - 3:19pm

Head coaches have to put together a good coaching staff to be successful. Staley has one of the worst. Lombardi has been a bad coordinator for 2 different teams with a lot of talent. Staley does not seem very good at identifying his players strengths and game planning around that. I said he is similar to Gase but it is probably closer to Matt Nagy. Nagy at least employed Fangio as DC though and made it to the playoffs with Trubisky at QB. Watching Nagy misuse Fields last year was insane. Nagy and Staley seem like guys who think their systems are perfect and try to force run it regardless of results or personnel. His game plans against the Chiefs, 49ers, and Dolphins have been quite good. I am assuming he is responsible for them. I could see him being a really good DC hire for the Packers though. They have good 3-4 personnel and a good HC. He seems like he would be an upgrade over Joe Barry too.

Points: 0

#28 by Laserblast // Dec 15, 2022 - 10:12am

I don't understand this statement.


 Brandon Staley is not a good HC. His area of expertise, defense, has been terrible both years he has been there. (...) It seems clear that Staley is better suited as a top end coordinator.

So first of all, you say Staley is a bad HC while not pointing out anything that is HC related.

If anything, I think Staley is a very good HC. I won't say he's top 10 because he still employs Lombardi (which may or may not be his fault, depending if the FO is in charge). He continuosly does good challenges, know when to use Timeouts, has a very good feel for the game, he was very good on 4th down decisions last year and seems to be getting there this last few games.

He also understands who his best players are and to put the ball in their hands in crunch time.


Second of all, you point out his coordinator faults (he's the defensive play caller) and then say he's a top end coordinator.


Which one is it?

Points: 1

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