SackSEER 2014

SackSEER 2014
SackSEER 2014
Photo: USA Today Sports Images

by Nathan Forster

With the NFL Combine under wraps, it is time for the annual unveiling of our SackSEER projections for the college "edge rushers" (4-3 defensive ends and 3-4 outside linebackers) available in the 2014 NFL Draft. For those unfamiliar with SackSEER, SackSEER predicts each player’s likely level of pass-rushing success based on combine drills and college production. The projections are based on the college and professional numbers of the 322 edge rushers taken in the NFL Draft from 1998–2012.

SackSEER expresses its thoughts on each drafted edge rusher through two outputs: SackSEER projection and SackSEER rating. SackSEER projection and SackSEER rating contain the following common elements:

  • An "explosion index" that measures the prospect’s scores in the forty-yard dash, the vertical jump, and the broad jump in pre-draft workouts;
  • The prospect’s score on the three-cone drill;
  • A metric called "SRAM" which stands for "sack rate as modified." SRAM measures the prospect’s per game sack productivity, but with adjustments for factors such as early entry in the NFL Draft and position switches during college;
  • The prospect’s college passes defensed divided by college games played;


  • The number of medical redshirts the player either received or was eligible for.

SackSEER projection projects the number of regular season sacks that a prospect will record in his first five regular seasons in the NFL. Unlike SackSEER rating, SackSEER projection includes the prospect’s projected round drafted from NFL Draft Scout.

SackSEER rating provides a historical percentile rating of the college edge rusher’s prospects for success as compared to the other prospects in SackSEER’s database, irrespective of projected draft position. For instance, SackSEER currently has 322 edge rushers in its database, so a prospect in this year’s draft who is stronger than 214 of those prospects on the historical trends identified by SackSEER would have a SackSEER rating of 66.9 percent [214 / 322]. So, if you want to see how the prospects stack up based on SackSEER’s trends alone, you can look at SackSEER rating, and if you want to see how the prospects stack up based on SackSEER’s trends when balanced against conventional wisdom, you can look at SackSEER projection.

SackSEER rating also includes two additional factors that are not included in SackSEER projection: quality of competition and weight. As to quality of competition, SackSEER contains a slight downward adjustment for players who hail from Division II or Division III schools. Followers of our SackSEER system might notice that we are including weight as a factor for the first time. As mentioned in previous updates, weight approached, but was not statistically significant in our prior regressions. Well, updating SackSEER with the 2012 edge rushers was enough to push weight into statistical significance. Weight is a relatively weak factor -— it is still much more important for an edge rusher to be fast than big -— but weight does improve the projections for years past, so we are using it this year. Notice that weight is not included in SackSEER projection. Scouts do a pretty good job of valuing prospects with a good size/speed combination, so including weight in SackSEER projection would just be redundant.

This year’s edge rusher prospects are a fascinating group, both for on the field and off the field reasons. Moreover, this year we have a new record SackSEER projection -— and what’s more, it doesn't belong to the guy who ran the forty-yard dash in 4.53 seconds.

Here are the SackSEER projections for the top edge rushers available in the 2014 NFL Draft:

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Khalil Mack Buffalo 1 +1.70 0.59 0.52 7.08 38.9 98.1%

NFL Network draft analyst Mike Mayock caused a minor controversy by stating that he would select Khalil Mack over Jadeveon Clowney, the most hyped defensive end prospect in the past decade. Well, Mayock has SackSEER in his corner, as Mack bests not only Clowney, but every 4-3 defensive end and 3-4 outside linebacker ever in the SackSEER projection system. Without the benefit of hindsight, SackSEER projection would slightly prefer Mack over Julius Peppers and Jevon Kearse (who have now been bumped down to the second- and third-highest projections on SackSEER’s all-time best list).

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It may sound crazy, but SackSEER actually likes Mack’s Combine workout better than Clowney’s. Clowney had a faster forty-yard dash (4.53 seconds versus 4.63 seconds), but Mack bested Clowney in the vertical leap, the broad jump, and crushed him in the three-cone. It is true that Clowney is bigger than Mack, but based on Combine weigh-ins, Clowney is only 15 pounds heavier than Mack -— bigger, but not so big as to offset Mack’s other advantages. Clowney may be a freak athlete, but putting Mack’s entire workout (and not just his forty-yard dash) in historical context, Mack is as freaky as Clowney, if not freakier.

Moreover, Mack’s stats for the Buffalo Bulls suggest that he is not so much a man, but rather, a vortex where offensive plays go to die. Mack holds the all-time FBS record for forced fumbles (16) and ties the all-time record for tackles for loss (75). To top it off, Mack had four interceptions and 24 passes broken up. The NCAA doesn’t track defeats, but with over one hundred combined tackles for loss and passes defensed, Mack would likely have the all-time record if it did.

The principal objection to Mack seems to be his lack of competition in the MAC, and indeed, a student of recent edge rusher prospects might note that, with the exception of maybe Jason Babin, there has not been a strong edge rusher from the MAC since Jason Taylor in 1997. These concerns, however, are likely overblown: it is actually pretty amazing how little strength of competition has mattered as far as the success of pass rushing defensive ends and linebackers. If DeMarcus Ware and his 27.5 college sacks in the Sun Belt Conference could make it in the NFL, Mack’s 28.5 in the MAC certainly can.

More concerning for Mack might be his small-ish 251-pound size. Mack probably should go to a 3-4 team or a team willing to use him in more of a Von Miller role in a 4-3 to reach his pass rushing potential. With such a strong projection, it seems likely that only a poor scheme fit or a serious injury could prevent Mack from becoming an extremely successful NFL player.

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Anthony Barr UCLA 1 +0.70 0.63 0.22 6.82 31.4 91.3%

Anthony Barr played his first two seasons for the Bruins at running back, but was switched to a pass rushing linebacker for his final two seasons at UCLA. The switch proved fortuitous, as Barr amassed 23 sacks in his final 27 games. Barr compares favorably to former Steelers linebacker Joey Porter, who also played his first two years in college at running back, showed promise as a pass rusher, and scored well during the NFL Combine.

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Jadeveon Clowney South Carolina 1 +1.58 0.63 0.19 7.27 30.2 94.4%

With the hype attendant to Jadeveon Clowney, any projection that falls short of anointing him as the next Deacon Jones could be taken as a slight. SackSEER sees Clowney as a once-a-year prospect, rather than the once-in-a-decade prospect that he’s sometimes made out to be.

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The principal reason that Clowney’s projection is just good, rather than truly awesome, is his passes defensed rate. Clowney had only seven pass break ups in 36 games and no interceptions. That gives Clowney a 0.19 passes defensed rate -— only slightly higher than the average drafted edge rusher passes defensed rate of 0.17. That’s not exactly a ticket to bust city, but it is enough to insure that Clowney falls short of other elite prospects like Julius Peppers and Mario Williams, who each more than doubled Clowney’s passes defensed rate.

Clowney is obviously a fantastic athlete. His explosion index of +1.58 is excellent, if not record-setting. One possible red flag, however, is his three-cone drill time of 7.27 seconds, which is actually two ticks below average for a drafted edge rusher. Because Clowney has such great straight-line athleticism, you have to wonder about his ability to bend if a few directional changes in a drill transform him into an average Joe. Clowney complained of a hip flexor at the Combine, so his mediocre three-cone might simply be a function of a minor injury, but it is nonetheless a potential area of concern.

It is also a bit curious that Clowney enters the draft with only three sacks in his final college season, which will actually be a sort of record -— no edge rusher drafted in the first round since at least 1998 has had so few sacks in his final college season. However, that fact is a piece of trivia, rather than a legitimate reason to doubt Clowney’s prospects. Historically, there is no demonstrable advantage for ending one’s career on a high or low note. The correlation between a prospect’s first, second, third, and fourth years in college and NFL success are all essentially identical. Clowney recorded eight, 13, and three sacks in each of his three college seasons, respectively. If instead, Clowney had recorded three sacks as a freshman, eight as a sophomore, and 13 as a junior, no one would have batted an eye.

Overall, there is nothing in Clowney’s SackSEER numbers that should dissuade an NFL decision-maker from making Clowney a top-five pick in the NFL Draft. Remember that SackSEER projects pass rushing skill only and says nothing about a prospect’s ability to contribute against the run. With a 6-foot-5, 266-pound frame, Clowney could be the rare defensive end prospect that can play both the run and the pass at a high level.

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Kony Ealy Missouri 1 -0.57 0.40 0.36 6.83 29.3 84.6%

Kony Ealy has an excellent combination of size and quickness, which obviously gives him great value as a pass-rushing defensive end in the 4-3 who can also contribute against the run. Ealy was strong at batting down passes as well. However, he falls just short of the top edge rushers in this draft due to his poor explosion index and his mediocre sack production. Ealy was just okay in his junior season, with eight sacks in 14 games, and only had a total of 4.5 sacks over the two years prior.

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Kyle Van Noy BYU 1–2 0.00 0.48 0.46 7.22 27.3 71.0%

Kyle Van Noy has the highest SackSEER projection out of of a quartet of promising edge rushers that could be had in the second round, which also includes Jackson Jeffcoat and Trent Murphy. Other than a high passes defensed rate, Van Noy shares little with his former teammate Ziggy Ansah, who was much larger and had better Combine numbers.


Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Kareem Martin North Carolina 3 +1.19 0.33 0.27 7.20 18.1 90.8%

Most of the talent SackSEER likes in this draft is at the top, but there are a few potential value adds. Kareem Martin of North Carolina is the most significant, a potential steal in the third round. Martin is open to "one-year wonder" criticism, but he had a nice, solid Combine workout and an above-average passes defensed rate. Deeper in the draft, Larry Webster is a nice lottery ticket-type pick from the tiny school of Bloomsburg. He had great sack production and a strong Combine performance, but gets marked down for his sub-FCS level of competition.


Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Dee Ford Auburn 1–2 +1.11 0.41 0.06 6.80 16.1 29.3%

Dee Ford has gone on record with his opinion that he is a stronger edge rusher prospect than Jadeveon Clowney. SackSEER strongly disagrees. Ford is a four-year player who was not productive in terms of sacks until his fourth and final year. Moreover, Ford’s passes defensed rate is really poor, especially for a smaller, more athletic defensive end who should have been moved around the defense -— he had only two passes defensed in four full seasons combined with an injury-shortened 2011. Speaking of the 2011 injury, the same back issues that caused Ford to take a medical redshirt recently re-emerged during the Combine. Teams looking to upgrade their pass rush in the middle to late first round would be better served "reaching" for the underrated and alliterative Jackson Jeffcoat or Trent Murphy rather than selecting Ford.


Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Michael Sam Missouri 5–6 -1.02 0.40 0.10 7.80 0.0 4.0%

At the bottom of the page is a chart of all of the SackSEER projections for edge rushers who received an invite to this year’s NFL Combine. Of great interest to most readers will be Missouri defensive end Michael Sam, who seeks to make history by becoming the first openly gay player to play in the NFL. The Football Outsiders staff certainly has a great deal of admiration for Sam’s courage, and we will be rooting for him to succeed. SackSEER, however, is a series of equations that are indifferent towards a prospect’s strength of character. In Sam’s case, those equations are not kind.

SackSEER is not a fan of Sam’s production, which may be somewhat counter-intuitive considering that Sam was the co-defensive player of the year in the SEC -— widely acknowledged to be the best defensive conference in college football. But Sam was not consistently productive over his career: he had only nine sacks in his first 37 games with the Missouri Tigers. Although he certainly had a nice senior season with 11.5 sacks in 14 games, edge rushers who are one-hit wonders in their senior seasons rarely pan out in the NFL. The lone exception is Tamba Hali, and Hali had the additional excuse of being miscast as a defensive tackle for his two years -— an excuse Sam cannot claim. Moreover, it may not be a coincidence that Sam’s senior season coincided with the ascension of teammate Kony Ealy.

Perhaps just as concerning is Sam’s average of less than a tenth of a pass defensed per game. Sam had plenty of time to accumulate passes defensed -— a whopping 52 games -— but collected few. Moreover, we have relatively good proof in the form of Kony Ealy’s good passes defensed rate that the scorekeepers at Missouri and its opponents were not overly stingy with awarding passes defensed to defensive linemen while Sam played for the Tigers.

To top it off, Sam’s Combine was even poorer than his 4.91 forty-yard dash time would suggest, as Sam scored below average on every drill that SackSEER cares about. Particularly poor were Sam’s vertical leap and three-cone drill, which were the second-worst and the tenth-worst, respectively, among the 320-plus edge rushers in SackSEER’s database. Sam’s three-cone, in fact, was almost a full second slower than teammate Kony Ealy, despite the latter being ten pounds heavier than the former.

Overall, there have been only 14 prospects that SackSEER rating likes less than Sam. Half of those guys had exactly zero career sacks (even if you exclude Brandon Jenkins, who has zero career sacks but was drafted just last year). Only three of those 14 players had, or are on pace to have, double-digit career sacks: Talance Sawyer, Robert Ayers, and Ellis Wyms. Before the Combine, some projected Sam as a third- or fourth-round pick. SackSEER thinks he’s closer to a seventh-round pick or an undrafted free agent.

This last table shows all the players we haven't specifically written about that were invited to the combine, as sorted by their projected sacks through year five:

Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
Trent Murphy Stanford 2 +0.20 0.70 0.30 6.78 25.8 91.0%
Jackson Jeffcoat Texas 2.5 +1.13 0.65 0.25 6.97 23.3 91.3%
Carl Bradford Arizona State 2 +0.86 0.57 0.26 7.25 22.6 82.9%
Scott Crichton Oregon State 2 -0.66 0.54 0.24 7.19 18.4 67.4%
Trevor Reilly Utah 2.5 +0.65 0.42 0.23 7.23 18.2 55.7%
Jeremiah Attaochu Georgia Tech 2.5 +0.60 0.57 0.12 7.24 16.8 64.1%
Marcus Smith Louisville 2.5 +0.80 0.53 0.16 7.48 16.3 57.0%
Chris Smith Arkansas 3.5 +0.89 0.44 0.16 7.55 12.2 68.8%
Demarcus Lawrence Boise State 3 -0.01 0.67 0.09 7.46 12.0 36.0%
Larry Webster Bloomsburg 7 +1.31 0.73 0.20 7.29 11.2 60.1%
Adrian Hubbard Alabama 4 +0.85 0.32 0.11 7.25 10.5 51.1%
Name College Proj. Round Explosion Index SRAM PD/Rate 3-Cone Sacks through Y5 SackSEER Rating
James Gayle Virginia Tech 4 +0.98 0.42 0.04 7.19 10.3 60.1%
William Clarke West Virginia 3.5 -0.20 0.23 0.20 7.26 10.2 41.6%
Howard Jones Shepherd 6.5 +1.15 0.76 0.04 7.16 8.9 24.5%
Aaron Lynch South Florida 6 +0.65 0.46 0.13 7.23 7.5 50.8%
Kasim Edebali Boston College 6.5 +0.13 0.20 0.30 7.20 7.5 40.8%
Ethan Westbrooks West Texas A&M 6.5 -0.92 0.71 0.24 7.30 6.9 20.0%
Cassisus Marsh UCLA 5.5 -0.74 0.33 0.10 7.08 4.1 12.3%
IK Enemkpali Louisiana Tech 7.5 -0.66 0.31 0.09 7.67 0.0 5.1%
George Uko USC 8 -1.11 0.36 0.07 7.45 0.0 11.6%
Tevin Mims South Florida 8 -1.23 0.18 0.00 7.42 0.0 1.6%


34 comments, Last at 21 Mar 2014, 12:12pm

#1 by Sifter // Mar 13, 2014 - 4:03pm

Nice article, always look forward to seeing what the numbers say. It would be nice if you could have all the players in the one table rather than having to scroll up and down to compare the notables to the unnotables. And dare I say it but Michael Sam's outlook on life might work in his favour come draft day. He's the one guy who could probably afford an awful combine. I can see a team taking him in that 5th-6th round region as a PR pointmaking exercise as much as anything.

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#3 by TacticalSledgehammer // Mar 13, 2014 - 4:44pm

Agreed. I think its far more likely that his personal circumstance helps his stock rather than hinders it. Not that I think that's why he did it. It was incredibly brave, and he'll still face his share of idiots. But I can more easily see a franchise taking him earlier for the good PR (it only takes one) than I can see him dropping due to homophobia (which would take all 32 teams being bigoted).


“Treat a man as he is, and he will remain as he is. Treat a man as he could be, and he will become what he should be.”

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#12 by Lebo // Mar 14, 2014 - 6:13am

Agree about having all the players in the same table.

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#17 by justanothersteve // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:46am

You are probably right about Sam. While he had a better than average college production, his talent probably won't translate to being a star in the NFL. He needed to do better at the combine and unless he has a significantly better pro day his projection won't change. Even before he came out, I would have been surprised if he was any better than a third rounder, so 5th-6th is still most likely right. He could still surprise like Zach Thomas. He will more likely be one of those try-hard guys who makes a career on special teams.

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#2 by ox10 // Mar 13, 2014 - 4:44pm

Check James Gayle's 3-cone time? Does this affect his other numbers?

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#8 by Aaron Schatz // Mar 13, 2014 - 5:42pm

I'm fixing this now, but as far as I know, it was correct in the workbook that figured out SackSEER.

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#4 by bhauck // Mar 13, 2014 - 4:49pm

The last two years the Lions have drafted three SackSEER-approved edge rushers in Ziggy Ansah, Devin Taylor, and Ronnell Lewis, and not really anyone the system doesn't like. I'm not sure if they're looking for another DE, but I'll be interested to see if they grab a Martin or Webster.

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#10 by LionInAZ // Mar 13, 2014 - 11:01pm

Perhaps, but keep in mind that this is not the DL-happy Schwartz/Cunningham crew that loved them some 4-man rush and frequent rotation of players. We don't know yet what kind of players they value.

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#18 by Peregrine // Mar 14, 2014 - 10:06am

Huh. As of this moment, if you asked me who the head coach of the Detroit Lions was, I couldn't give you an answer. I'm sure I heard the news but nothing stuck. Oh I'm getting old.

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#24 by Peregrine // Mar 14, 2014 - 9:50pm

I was scratching my head about this throughout the day without success. I follow the NFL pretty closely. How could I forget who the head coach of a team is?

And I just looked it up and the head coach of the Lions is Jim Caldwell. Says it all, huh.

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#20 by bhauck // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:24pm

Same GM, though. Schwartz is in Buffalo now, right? I'd be interested to see which team, if either, drafts on of the players SackSEER is higher on than conventional wisdom.

Of course, this is way, way, way, way too small a sample to actually tell if either is evaluating edge rushers in a manner similar to SackSEER.

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#34 by bhauck // Mar 21, 2014 - 12:12pm

Lions are hosting Larry Webster, who might qualify as a continuation of the trend, given that he's projected here to go in the 7th and he's mixed in with a bunch of 3s and 4s.

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#5 by Thomas_beardown // Mar 13, 2014 - 5:03pm

251 lbs is light, but it's within 10 lbs of the weight that Alex Brown and Adewale Ogunleye played at. Khalil Mack to the Bucs at #7 makes a lot of sense. Especially if Clowney is considered better by at least the Falcons.

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#6 by JustAnotherFal… // Mar 13, 2014 - 5:12pm

Given that Atlanta is moving towards more of a 3-4 look, Mack probably won't make it to the Bucs even if Clowney is still on the board.

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#7 by jonnyblazin // Mar 13, 2014 - 5:29pm

The truth has finally come out - SackSEER is a raging homophobe.

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#14 by CBPodge // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:38am

Excellent use of the phrase "come out" too.

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#9 by Nathan Forster // Mar 13, 2014 - 9:30pm

Aaron's right. The Gayle 3-cone thing was an error in the part of my spreadsheet that I used to make a table, but not in the cell actually used for the projections. A 3.00 second 3-cone would be mad impressive. Maybe he could do it if he hit a wormhole between cones one and two.

Sorry JPP!

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#11 by Duff Soviet Union // Mar 14, 2014 - 3:20am

Maybe I'm dumb, but I can't figure out why Barr's projection is ahead of Clowney's when Clowney has the higher rating. I though the projection was introduced to control for draft position because even first round bust's like Derrick Harvey picked up a few sacks because their teams kept putting them on the field. But Clowney's going to get drafted ahead of Barr, so apparently it's not that.

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#13 by Dan // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:00am

I think it's because the rating includes the player's weight and the projection does not.

The article says it's set up that way because "Scouts do a pretty good job of valuing prospects with a good size/speed combination, so including weight in SackSEER projection would just be redundant." My guess is that means that weight predicts number of NFL sacks, but not if you control for draft position. So it's not worth including weight in the projection (which does control for draft position) even though it is worth including weight in the rating (which does not control for draft position).

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#15 by CBPodge // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:39am

The prospects are ranked by sacks through year 5, rather than SackSEER rating (penulatimate column).

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#22 by Nathan Forster // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:40pm

Dan is partially right, but it's also because adding projected draft round to the regression changes the strength of the various coefficients a little bit relative to each other. Players who do better at 3-cone and passes defensed tend to score a little higher in SackSEER projection, while those with fast forty times and high sack productions score a little higher in SackSEER rating.

By the way, as far as Clowney and Barr, I think this is an instance where SackSEER rating is the more instructive metric for a number of reasons.

Sorry JPP!

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#16 by CBPodge // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:43am

I'm curious how much Clowney's projection would change if you assumed he had 10 sacks this season, rather than 3? Just curious whether it would make a massive difference or not, if you took a guess at "this is what the projection would be if he wasn't a lazy git in his junior year"!

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#23 by Nathan Forster // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:43pm

His projection would go up by 1.7 sacks, per your Jadeveon Clowney fan fiction.

Sorry JPP!

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#32 by CBPodge // Mar 17, 2014 - 9:21am

Okeydokey. That's informative, because it means that its not like the thing stopping him having a SackSEER projection that matches up with his draft stock is just not trying in his senior year - there's other things going on.

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#19 by MarkV // Mar 14, 2014 - 4:01pm

I wish there was an easy way to find all previous SackSEER columns (and all LCF, playmaker, speedscore, etc).

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#21 by bhauck // Mar 14, 2014 - 8:25pm

Just changing the dates in the URL will take you back a few years.

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#25 by MC2 // Mar 14, 2014 - 10:04pm

Try typing "sackseer" into the little search box at the top of this page. Is that easy enough for you?

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#26 by RickD // Mar 14, 2014 - 11:17pm

Sarcasm points! You can trade those in at the end of the year.

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#27 by MC2 // Mar 15, 2014 - 3:23am

You're right. I'm such a jerk for expecting people to understand how these newfangled search engine thingies work! Thanks for setting me straight, pal!

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#28 by MarkV // Mar 15, 2014 - 12:37pm

my point was that these annual articles are one of the more impressive resources FO has, and having them buried so that people who don't know about them can't find them is unfortunate.

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#29 by MC2 // Mar 15, 2014 - 6:28pm

Fair enough. So why didn't you just say that to begin with?

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#30 by Jerry // Mar 16, 2014 - 1:11am

He did.

Search results will include articles that mention SackSEER, comments threads where Nate has posted under that name, etc. Mark said, very politely, that it would be nice to have a tab where all the SackSEER and other projection articles were easily available. It's a reasonable request that shouldn't require a paragraph of fine print.

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#31 by MC2 // Mar 16, 2014 - 1:55am

If you actually did the search (which would have taken you less time than it took to type out your comment), you would see that the first five results are the five actual articles. Is that really so hard?

I can't believe all the effort that is being expended to defend a silly comment and to attack me for poking fun at said silly comment. Are you guys expecting to get some kind of award from the Internet Sarcasm Police?

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#33 by CJS at NYC // Mar 19, 2014 - 7:41am

Wait. There's an end of the year?

Points: 0

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